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Iti 28-49

§ 28. {Iti 2.1; Iti 22}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Endowed with two things, a monk lives in stress in the present life — troubled, distressed, & feverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, a bad destination can be expected. Which two? A lack of guarding of the doors of the sense faculties, and knowing no moderation in food. Endowed with these two things, a monk lives in stress in the present life — troubled, distressed, & feverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, a bad destination can be expected."

Eye & ear & nose, tongue & body & mind: when a monk leaves these doors unguarded — knowing no moderation in food, not restraining his senses — he experiences stress: stress in body, stress in mind. Burning in body burning in mind, whether by day or by night, he lives in suffering & stress.

§ 29. {Iti 2.2; Iti 23}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Endowed with two things, a monk lives in ease in the present life — untroubled, undistressed, & unfeverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, a good destination can be expected. Which two? A guarding of the doors of the sense faculties, and knowing moderation in food. Endowed with these two things, a monk lives in ease in the present life — untroubled, undistressed, & unfeverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, a good destination can be expected."

Eye & ear & nose, tongue & body & mind: when a monk has these doors well guarded — knowing moderation in food, restraining his senses — he experiences ease: ease in body, ease in mind. Not burning in body, not burning in mind, whether by day or by night, he lives in ease.

§ 30. {Iti 2.3; Iti 24}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "There are these two things that cause remorse. Which two? There is the case of the person who has not done what is admirable, has not done what is skillful, has not given protection to those in fear, and instead has done what is evil, savage, & cruel. Thinking, 'I have not done what is admirable,' he feels remorse. Thinking, 'I have done what is evil,' he feels remorse. These are the two things that cause remorse."

Having engaged in bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, misconduct of mind,[1] or whatever else is flawed, not having done what is skillful, having done much that is not, at the break-up of the body, the undiscerning one reappears in hell.

Note

1.
AN 10.176 defines bodily misconduct as killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct; verbal misconduct as lies, divisive speech, harsh speech, and idle chatter; and mental misconduct as covetousness, ill will, and wrong views (see the note to §32).

§ 31. {Iti 2.4; Iti 25}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "There are these two things that cause no remorse. Which two? There is the case of the person who has done what is admirable, has done what is skillful, has given protection to those in fear, and has done nothing that is evil, savage, or cruel. Thinking, 'I have done what is admirable,' he feels no remorse. Thinking, 'I have not done what is evil,' he feels no remorse. These are the two things that cause no remorse."

Having abandoned bodily misconduct, verbal misconduct, misconduct of mind, & whatever else is flawed, not having done what's not skillful, having done much that is, at the break-up of the body, the discerning one reappears in heaven.

§ 32. {Iti 2.5; Iti 26}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Endowed with two things, a person — as if carried off — is thus placed in hell. Which two? Evil habits & evil views. Endowed with these two things, a person — as if carried off — is thus placed in hell."

Evil habits & evil views:[1] a person, undiscerning, endowed with these two things, at the break-up of the body reappears in hell.

Note

1.
MN 117 gives the following example of an evil view: "There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There is no fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no next world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no brahmans or contemplatives who, faring rightly &practicing rightly, proclaim this world & the next after having directly known & realized it for themselves."

§ 33. {Iti 2.6; Iti 26}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Endowed with two things, a person — as if carried off — is thus placed in heaven. Which two? Auspicious habits & auspicious views. Endowed with these two things, a person — as if carried off — is thus placed in heaven."

Auspicious habits & auspicious views: a person, discerning, endowed with these two things, at the break-up of the body reappears in heaven.

§ 34. {Iti 2.7; Iti 27}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "A person without ardor, without concern [for the results of doing evil], is incapable of self-awakening, incapable of Unbinding, incapable of attaining the unsurpassed safety from bondage. A person ardent & concerned is capable of self-awakening, capable of Unbinding, capable of attaining the unsurpassed safety from bondage."

With no ardor, no concern, lazy, with low persistence, full of sloth & drowsiness, shameless, without respect: he's incapable, a monk like this, of touching superlative self-awakening. But whoever is mindful, masterful, absorbed in jhana, ardent, concerned, & heedful, cutting the fetter of birth & aging, touches right here a self-awakening un- surpassed.

§ 35. {Iti 2.8; Iti 28}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, this holy life is lived, not for the sake of deceiving people, not for the sake of inveigling people, not for the sake of the rewards of gain, offerings, & tribute, nor with the thought, 'Thus may people know me.' This holy life is lived for the sake of restraint & abandoning."

For the sake of restraint, for the sake of abandoning, he, the Blessed One, taught a holy life not handed down,[1] coming to shore in Unbinding. This path is pursued by those great in purpose, great seers. Those who follow it, as taught by the One Awakened, heeding the Teacher's message, will put an end to suffering & stress.

Note

1.
"Not handed down": not derived from an ancient tradition, and not dependent on ancient tradition for its authority.

§ 36. {Iti 2.9; Iti 29}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, this holy life is lived, not for the sake of deceiving people, not for the sake of inveigling people, not for the sake of the rewards of gain, offerings, & tribute, nor with the thought, 'Thus may people know me.' This holy life is lived for the sake of direct knowledge[1] & full comprehension."

For the sake of direct knowledge & full comprehension, he, the Blessed One, taught a holy life not handed down, coming to shore in Unbinding. Unbinding. This path is pursued by those great in purpose, great seers. Those who follow it, as taught by the One Awakened, heeding the Teacher's message, will put an end to suffering & stress.

Note

1.
Direct knowledge = abhiñña. The Canon lists six types of abhiñña: psychic powers, clairaudience, the ability to read the minds of others, recollection of past lives, clairvoyance, and — most important of all — knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations.

§ 37. {Iti 2.10; Iti 29}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Endowed with two things, a monk lives in ease in the present life and is appropriately aroused for the ending of the fermentations. Which two? A sense of urgency & awe toward things that should inspire urgency & awe[1] and, feeling urgency & awe, appropriate exertion. Endowed with two things, a monk lives in ease in the present life and is appropriately aroused for the ending of the fermentations."

Feeling urgency, awe, toward what should inspire it, the wise, masterful, ardent monk should investigate with discernment. One who lives thus ardently, not restlessly, at peace, committed to awareness-tranquillity would attain the ending of suffering & stress.

Note

1.
Urgency & awe = samvega. Other meanings for this term include shock, dismay, & alienation. In the Pali canon, this emotion is often accompanied by fear and a sensed need to escape from overwhelming danger. The things that should inspire urgency & awe are the first four of the five reflections listed in AN 5.57: "I am subject to aging, have not gone beyond aging. I am subject to illness, have not gone beyond illness. I am subject to death, have not gone beyond death. I will grow different, separate from all that is dear & appealing to me." Appropriate exertion is indicated by the fifth reflection: "I am the owner of my actions, heir to my actions, born of my actions, related through my actions, and have by actions as my arbitrator. Whatever I do, for good or for evil, to that will I fall heir."

§ 38. {Iti 2.11; Iti 31}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Two trains of thought often occur to the Tathagata, worthy & rightly self-awakened: the thought of safety & that of seclusion.

"The Tathagata enjoys non-ill will, delights in non-ill will. To him — enjoying non-ill will, delighting in non-ill will — this thought often occurs: 'By this activity I harm no one at all, whether weak or firm.'

"The Tathagata enjoys seclusion, delights in seclusion. To him — enjoying seclusion, delighting in seclusion — this thought often occurs: 'Whatever is unskillful is abandoned.'

"Thus, monks, you too should live enjoying non-ill will, delighting in non-ill will. To you — enjoying non-ill will, delighting in non-ill will — this thought will often occur: 'By this activity we harm no one at all, whether weak or firm.'

"You too should live enjoying seclusion, delighting in seclusion. To you — enjoying seclusion, delighting in seclusion — this thought will often occur: 'What is unskillful? What is not yet abandoned? What are we abandoning?'"

To the Tathagata, awakened, who endured what is hard to endure, two thoughts occur: safety the first thought mentioned; seclusion the second declared. The dispeller of darkness, free of fermentation, the great seer who has gone beyond, reached attainment, gained mastery, crossed over the poisons; who's released in the ending of craving: that sage bears his last body, has shaken off Mara, I tell you, has gone beyond aging. As one standing on a rocky crag would see the people all around below, so the wise, with the all-around eye, having scaled the tower made of Dhamma, having crossed over sorrow, gaze on those overwhelmed with sorrow, conquered by aging & death.

§ 39. {Iti 2.12; Iti 33}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "The Tathagata — worthy & rightly self-awakened — has two Dhamma discourses given in sequence. Which two? 'See evil as evil.' This is the first Dhamma discourse. 'Having seen evil as evil, become disenchanted there, dispassionate there, released.' This is the second Dhamma discourse. These are the two Dhamma discourses that the Tathagata — worthy & rightly self-awakened — has given in sequence."

See the two statements, declared in sequence, by the Tathagata, awakened, sympathetic to all beings. The first: Be dispassionate there toward evil. Then, with a mind dispassionate, you will put an end to suffering & stress.

§ 40. {Iti 2.13; Iti 34}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Ignorance[1] precedes the arrival of unskillful qualities; lack of conscience & lack of concern[2] follow after. Clear knowing precedes the arrival of skillful qualities; conscience & concern follow after."

Any bad destinations in this world, in the next, are rooted in ignorance — all — accumulations of desire & greed. And when a person of evil desires lacks conscience & respect, evil comes from that, and by that he goes to deprivation. So cleansing away ignorance, desire, & greed, a monk giving rise to clear knowing would abandon all bad destinations.

Notes

1.
Ignorance (avijja) means ignorance of stress, its origination, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation.
2.
Conscience (hiri) means a healthy sense of shame — derived from self-esteem — at the idea of doing evil. Concern (ottappa) means fear of the consequences of doing evil.

§ 41. {Iti 2.14; Iti 35}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Those beings are truly deprived who are deprived of noble discernment. They live in stress in the present life — troubled, distressed, & feverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, a bad destination can be expected.

"Those beings are not deprived who are not deprived of noble discernment. They live in ease in the present life — untroubled, undistressed, & not feverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, a good destination can be expected.

Look at the world — including its heavenly beings: deprived of discernment, making an abode in name-&-form, it conceives that 'This is the truth.' The best discernment in the world is what leads to penetration, for it rightly discerns the total ending of birth & becoming. Human & heavenly beings hold them dear: those who are self-awakened, mindful, bearing their last bodies with joyful discernment.

§ 42. {Iti 2.15; Iti 36}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "There are these two bright qualities that safeguard the world. Which two? Conscience & concern (for the results of unskillful actions). If these two bright qualities did not guard the world, there would be no recognition of 'mother' here, no recognition of 'mother's sister,' 'uncle's wife,' 'teacher's wife,' or 'wife of those who deserve respect.' The world would be immersed in promiscuity, like rams with goats, roosters with pigs, or dogs with jackals. But because these two bright qualities guard the world, there is recognition of 'mother,' 'mother's sister,' 'uncle's wife,' 'teacher's wife,' & 'wife of those who deserve respect.'"

Those in whom concern & conscience are not always found have strayed from the bright root, are headed to birth & death. But those in whom concern & conscience are rightly established always, who are mature in the holy life: they are calm, their further becoming ended.

§ 43. {Iti 2.16; Iti 37}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "There is, monks, an unborn — unbecome — unmade — unfabricated. If there were not that unborn — unbecome — unmade — unfabricated, there would not be the case that emancipation from the born — become — made — fabricated would be discerned. But precisely because there is an unborn — unbecome — unmade — unfabricated, emancipation from the born — become — made — fabricated is thus discerned."

The born, become, produced, made, fabricated, impermanent, composed of aging & death, a nest of illnesses, perishing, come from nourishment and the guide [that is craving] — is unfit for delight. The escape from that is calm, permanent, beyond inference, unborn, unproduced, the sorrowless, stainless state, the cessation of stressful qualities, the stilling of fabrications, bliss.

§ 44. {Iti 2.17; Iti 38}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, there are these two forms of the Unbinding property. Which two? The Unbinding property with fuel remaining, & the Unbinding property with no fuel remaining.

And what is the Unbinding property with fuel remaining? There is the case where a monk is an arahant whose fermentations have ended, who has reached fulfillment, finished the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, ended the fetter of becoming, and is released through right gnosis. His five sense faculties still remain and, owing to their being intact, he is cognizant of the agreeable & the disagreeable, and is sensitive to pleasure & pain. His ending of passion, aversion, & delusion is termed the Unbinding property with fuel remaining.[1]

And what is the Unbinding property with no fuel remaining? There is the case where a monk is an arahant whose fermentations have ended, who has reached fulfillment, finished the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, ended the fetter of becoming, and is released through right gnosis. For him, all that is sensed, being unrelished, will grow cold right here. This is termed the Unbinding property with no fuel remaining."[2]

These two proclaimed by the one with vision, Unbinding properties the one independent, the one who is Such:[3] one property, here in this life with fuel remaining from the destruction of the guide to becoming, and that with no fuel remaining, after this life, in which all becoming totally ceases. Those who know this state uncompounded, their minds released through the destruction of the guide to becoming, they, attaining the Teaching's core, pleased with ending, have abandoned all becoming: they, the Such.

Notes

1, 2.
With fuel remaining (sa-upadisesa) and with no fuel remaining (anupadisesa): The analogy here is to a fire. In the first case, the flames are out, but the embers are still glowing. In the second, the fire is so thoroughly out that the embers have grown cold. The "fuel" here is the five aggregates (see the Glossary). While the arahant is still alive, he/she still experiences the five aggregates, but they do not burn with the fires of passion, aversion, or delusion. When the arahant passes away, there is no longer any experience of aggregates here or anywhere else. For a discussion of this point, see The Mind Like Fire Unbound, pp. 21-37.
3.
Such (tadi): An adjective to describe one who has attained the goal. It indicates that the person's state is undefinable and not subject to change or influence of any sort.

§ 45. {Iti 2.18; Iti 39}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, live enjoying aloofness, delighting in aloofness, inwardly committed to awareness-tranquillity, not neglecting jhana, endowed with clear-seeing insight, and frequenting empty buildings. As you live enjoying aloofness, delighting in aloofness, inwardly committed to awareness-tranquillity, not neglecting jhana, endowed with clear-seeing insight, and frequenting empty buildings, then one of two fruits can be expected: either gnosis right in the present life, or — if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance — non-return."

Those with calm minds — masterful, mindful, absorbed in jhana — clearly see things rightly, not intent on sensual pleasures. Delighting in heedfulness, calm, seeing danger in heedlessness, they — incapable of falling away — are right on the verge of Unbinding.

§ 46. {Iti 2.19; Iti 40}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, live with the trainings [in heightened virtue, heightened mind, & heightened discernment] as your reward, with discernment uppermost, release the essence, & mindfulness the governing principle. As you live with the trainings as your reward, with discernment uppermost, release the essence, & mindfulness the governing principle, then one of two fruits can be expected: either gnosis right in the present life, or — if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance — non-return."

Complete in the training, not subject to falling away, one with discernment uppermost, seeing the stopping, the ending of birth: that sage bears his last body, has shaken off Mara, I tell you, has gone beyond aging. So, always delighting in jhana, centered, ardent, seeing the stopping, the ending of birth, conquering Mara, along with his host, monks, be gone-beyond aging & death.

§ 47. {Iti 2.20; Iti 41}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "A monk should be wakeful: mindful, alert, centered, sensitive, clear, & calm. And there he should, at the appropriate times, see clearly into skillful mental qualities. For a monk who is wakeful — mindful, alert, centered, sensitive, clear, & calm, seeing clearly, at the appropriate times, into skillful mental qualities — one of two fruits can be expected: either gnosis right in the present life, or — if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance — non-return."

Those who are wakeful, listen! Those who are sleeping, wake up! Wakefulness is better than sleep. For those who are wakeful, there's no danger, no fear. Whoever is wakeful, mindful, alert, centered, sensitive, calm, & clear, rightly exploring the Dhamma at appropriate times, will — at oneness — shatter the darkness. So be devoted to wakefulness. The ardent monk — masterful, acquiring jhana, cutting the fetter of birth & aging — touches right here a self-awakening un- surpassed.

§ 48. {Iti 2.21; Iti 42}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Monks, these two are doomed to deprivation, to hell, for not abandoning their conduct. Which two? One who, not living the celibate life, pretends to be one who lives the celibate life; and one who groundlessly accuses one who lives the celibate life perfectly & purely of uncelibate behavior. These are the two who are doomed to deprivation, to hell, for not abandoning their conduct."

He goes to hell, the one who asserts what didn't take place, as does the one who, having done, says, 'I didn't.' Both — low-acting people — there become equal: after death, in the world beyond. An ochre robe tied 'round their necks, many with evil qualities — unrestrained, evil — rearise, because of their evil acts, in hell. Better to eat an iron ball — glowing, aflame — than that, unprincipled & unrestrained, you should eat the alms of the country.

§ 49. {Iti 2.22; Iti 43}

This was said by the Blessed One, said by the Arahant, so I have heard: "Overcome by two viewpoints, some human & divine beings adhere, other human & divine beings slip right past, while those with vision see.

"And how do some adhere? Human & divine beings enjoy becoming, delight in becoming, are satisfied with becoming. When the Dhamma is being taught for the sake of the cessation of becoming, their minds do not take to it, are not calmed by it, do not settle on it or become resolved on it. This is how some adhere.

"And how do some slip right past? Some, feeling horrified, humiliated, & disgusted with that very becoming, relish non-becoming: 'When this self, at the break-up of the body, after death, perishes & is destroyed, and does not exist after death, that is peaceful, that is exquisite, that is sufficiency!' This is how some slip right past.

"And how do those with vision see? There is the case where a monk sees what has come into being as come into being. Seeing what has come into being as come into being, he practices for disenchantment with what has come into being, dispassion toward what has come into being, cessation of what has come into being. This is how those with vision see."[1]

Those, having seen what's come to be as what's come to be, and what's gone beyond what's come to be, are released in line with what's come to be, through the exhaustion of craving for becoming. If they've comprehended what's come to be, and are free from the craving for becoming & non-, with the non-becoming of what's come to be, monks come to no further becoming.

Note

1.
This discourse illustrates, in a technical fashion, the function of appropriate attention explained in the note to §16. SN 12.15 presents the same point from a different perspective: "This world takes as its object a polarity, that of existence & non-existence. But when one sees the origination of the world (= the six senses and their objects) as it actually is with right discernment, 'non-existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one. When one sees the cessation of the world as it actually is with right discernment, 'existence' with reference to the world does not occur to one. By & large, this world is in bondage to attachments, clingings, & biases. But one such as this does not get involved with or cling to these attachments, clingings, fixations of awareness, biases, or obsessions; nor is he resolved on 'my self.' He has no uncertainty or doubt that, when there is arising, only stress is arising; and that when there is passing away, stress is passing away. In this, his knowledge is independent of others."